The standard treatment for narrowed or leaking pulmonary valve conduits has been another heart surgery to place a new valve. During the surgery, your doctor removes your narrowed or leaking conduit and places a new pulmonary conduit containing an artificial pulmonary valve in its place.
During this procedure, a thin, hollow tube (catheter) is inserted into a vein (typically in your leg) and guided to your heart. A deflated balloon is placed through the opening of the narrowed conduit. Your doctor then inflates the balloon, which pushes the narrowed conduit open so that blood may flow better.
An artificial heart valve attached to a wire, mesh-like tube (stent) is placed on a thin, flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon on the end and guided to the heart through a vein (usually at the top of the leg or a neck vein). It is put in the conduit between the right lower chamber (ventricle) and the artery that goes from your heart to your lungs. Once in place, the balloon is inflated to open up the valve into position. The catheter is removed from the body, and the artificial heart valve becomes the new pulmonary valve.