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CRYPTOGENIC STROKE CARDIAC DIAGNOSTICS & MONITORING

Atrial fibrillation detection and treatment matters

THE CRYPTOGENIC STROKE CHALLENGE

Each year, at least 200,000 cryptogenic strokes occur in the United States1

Cryptogenic Stroke - One Third Icons

One-Third of Ischemic Strokes are Cryptogenic (Unexplained)

Cryptogenic stroke accounts for approximately one-third of ischemic strokes in the modern stroke registries and databases.2

Cryptogenic stroke is as prevalent as large vessel stroke.


THE LINK BETWEEN STROKE AND ATRIAL FIBRILLATION 

Why AF Detection and Treatment Matters for Cryptogenic Stroke Patients

AF Detection Matters Chart


2018 AHA ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE GUIDELINES6

Class Level Recommendation

II

B

The clinical benefit of prolonged cardiac monitoring to detect atrial fibrillation after acute ischemic stroke is uncertain.

II

C-EO

In some patients with acute ischemic stroke, prolonged cardiac monitoring to provide additional information to plan subsequent secondary preventive treatment may be reasonable, although the effect on outcomes is uncertain.


2016 ESC Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines7

Long-term cardiac monitoring recommended for cryptogenic stroke patients

  • Guidelines developed by the Task Force for the management of atrial fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
  • Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the ESC
  • Endorsed by the European Stroke Organisation (ESO)
Class Level Recommendation

IIa

B

In stroke patients, additional ECG monitoring by long-term non- invasive ECG monitors or implanted loop recorders should be considered to document silent atrial fibrillation. 


30 Days of Cardiac Monitoring Is Not Long Enough in Cryptogenic Stroke Patients8

Atrial Fibrillation is frequently asymptomatic and/or paroxysmal

The CRYSTAL-AF Study found that short- and intermediate-term cardiac monitoring may miss many patients with paroxysmal AF.

Crystal AF Boxes Chart


REVEAL LINQ™ ICM Patient Selection Considerations

Indications*

  • Patients with clinical syndromes or situations at increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias

Appropriate

  • Stroke detected by CT or MRI that is not lacunar9
  • Absence of extracranial or intracranial atherosclerosis causing9
  • ≥ 50% luminal stenosis in arteries supplying the area of ischaemia9
  • No major-risk cardioembolic source of embolism1
  • No other specific cause of stroke identified (e.g., arteritis, dissection, migraine/vasospasm, drug misuse)9
  • Any age
  • First event – Stroke or High-Risk TIA**
  • CHADS2 score ≥ 2 (Minimal risk factors)

Not Appropriate

  • Indication for chronic anticoagulation or already on anticoagulation
  • Patients with a relative contraindication for long-term anticoagulation and not appropriate for LAA closure device

* See full brief statement for complete indications for use.
** ABCD2 Score >5


1

American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics, 2015 Update. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/General/Heart-and-Stroke-Association-Statistics_UCM_319064_SubHomePage.jsp. Accessed April 12, 2015.

2

Sacco RL, Ellenberg JH, Mohr JP, et al. Infarcts of undetermined cause: the NINCDS Stroke Data Bank. Ann Neurol. April 1989;25(4):382-390.

3

Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation: a major contributor to stroke in the elderly. The Framingham Study. Arch Intern Med. September 1987;147(9):1561-1564.

4

Lin HJ, Kelly-Hayes M, Beiser AS, et al. Stroke Severity in Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Study. Stroke. 1996; 27: 1760-1764.

5

Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study. Final results. Circulation. August 1991;84(2):527-539.

6

WJ, et al. Stroke 2018; doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000158. [Epub ahead of print]

7

Kirchhof P, Benussi, S, Kotecha D, et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Eur Heart J. Published online August 27, 2016. Accessed online August 31, 2016 at: http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/08/26/eurheartj.ehw210.

8

Sanna T, Diener HC, Passman RS, et al. Cryptogenic stroke and underlying atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. June 26, 2014;370(26):2478-2486.

9

Hart RG, Diener HC, Coutts SB, et al. Embolic strokes of undetermined source: the case for a new clinical construct. Lancet Neurol. April 2014;13(4):429-438.