Benefits and Risks — Shunt Therapy Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

Overview

Typically, shunt implantation lets people with IIH enjoy more normal lives, but there are always risks to any surgical procedure.


Benefits

A shunt redirects cerebrospinal fluid from the nervous system to another area of the body. It is designed to:

  • Regulate the amount, flow direction, and pressure of cerebrospinal fluid
  • Allow for adjustment of shunt drainage rate as needed

Risks

Unlike most surgical procedures, in which the risks are highest during the operation itself, most of the common problems associated with shunting may occur at a later time. The most common complications with shunting are obstruction, infection, and overdrainage.


Obstruction

Obstruction of a shunt may occur in any of the parts of the shunt system due to plugging by blood clots, bacterial colonization, or other biological debris at some point along the shunt’s course. Another cause is disconnection of the components. If you feel your symptoms returning, your shunt may be obstructed. If this occurs, it’s important to call your doctor and get to the hospital for observation and treatment immediately. Removal and replacement of the shunt may be required.


Infection

Infection is a risk with any surgical operation, especially when a foreign body like a shunt is implanted. If left untreated, infection can cause the wound to open up or cause systemic infection with chills and high fever.

If you develop an infection, the shunt may need to be removed and replaced. Symptoms of infection may include unusual redness or swelling of the wounds along the length of the shunt path.


Overdrainage

Overdrainage is generally caused when too much CSF is drained out of the ventricles too quickly. If you notice your symptoms returning: headache, nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, changes in vision – particularly double vision, overdrainage may be the problem. The problem may be that there is too much CSF being siphoned off too quickly and your valve needs re-adjusting to a pressure level that better suits you.


Information on this site should not be used as a substitute for talking with your doctor. Always talk with your doctor about diagnosis and treatment information.