Overview

  • Mechanism of Injury
    • Intraoperative anemia increases the risk for inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery.([FOOTNOTE=Habib RH, Zacharias A, Schwann TA, Riordan CJ, Durham SJ, Shah A. Adverse effects of low hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass in the adult: should current practice be changed? The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2003;125(6):1438-1450.],[ANCHOR=View Abstract],[LINK=/content/covidien/websites/medtronic/com/en/covidien/support/clinical-evidence.html?id=883102]) Blood priming of the bypass circuit prevents cerebral desaturation in high-risk, low hematocrit coronary revascularization patients([FOOTNOTE=McCusker K, Chalafant A, de Foe G, Gunaydin S, Vijay V. Influence of hematocrit and pump prime on cerebral oxygen saturation in on-pump coronary revascularization. Perfusion. 2006;21(3):149-155.],[ANCHOR=View Abstract],[LINK=/content/covidien/websites/medtronic/com/en/covidien/support/clinical-evidence.html?id=297511])
    • Several studies have demonstrated cerebral desaturation following hemodilution or blood loss([FOOTNOTE=Torella F, McCollum CN. Regional haemoglobin oxygen saturation during surgical haemorrhage. Minerva Med. 2004;95(5):461-467.],[ANCHOR=View Abstract],[LINK=/content/covidien/websites/medtronic/com/en/covidien/support/clinical-evidence.html?id=297423]),([FOOTNOTE=Han SH, Bahk JH, Kim JH, et al. The effect of esmolol-induced controlled hypotension in combination with acute normovolemic hemodilution on cerebral oxygenation. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2006;50(7):863-868.],[ANCHOR=],[LINK=])
  • Associated Outcome
    • The adverse ischemic effect of low hematocrit and hemoglobin during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with poor postoperative outcome1 and neurological impairment([FOOTNOTE=Mathew JP, Mackensen GB, Phillips-Bute B, et al. Effects of extreme hemodilution during cardiac surgery on cognitive function in the elderly. Anesthesiology. 2007;107(4):577-584.],[ANCHOR=View Abstract],[LINK=/content/covidien/websites/medtronic/com/en/covidien/support/clinical-evidence.html?id=883111])
  • Related Intervention
Intervention % of all interventions([FOOTNOTE=Deschamps A, Lambert J, Couture P, et al. Reversal of decreases in cerebral saturation in high-risk cardiac surgery. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2013;27(6):1260-1266.],[ANCHOR=View Abstract],[LINK=/content/covidien/websites/medtronic/com/en/covidien/support/clinical-evidence.html?id=805152])
Blood Transfusion 11.4