WHAT IS BRAIN INJURY?
Brain injury refers to any type of brain damage that occurs after birth. It can include infection diseases that affect brain, lack of oxygen supplying the brain, aneurysm, brain tumour or head trauma.
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) refers specifically to damage secondary to head trauma. Common causes include motor vehicle accidents, assaults, falls and sport injuries. Severity of TBI may range from mild (i.e., brief change in mental status or consciousness) to severe (i.e., extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after injury).
Depending on the severity, the mechanism and the type of brain injury, individuals who suffer TBI are likely to present clinical complications, including motor, cognitive, sensory and behavioural deficits. One of the most prevalent and disabling sequelae of TBI is motor disturbance, such as increase of motor tone or spasticity. Spasticity is a movement disorder where muscles become tight, stiff and difficult to control.1,2
Epidemiological evidence for spasticity development is not well-characterised. Incidence estimates vary from 13 to 63% of patients with brain injury.2,3
What ARE the Impacts of spasticity due to brain injury
The development of spasticity represents one of the most significant barriers for re-habilitation after moderate/severe traumatic brain injury. In addition, delay before starting spasticity treatment might lead to debilitating orthopaedic problem induced by increase of muscle tone. Contractures (muscular deformity) due to spasticity has been estimated occurring in up to 85% of patients with severe traumatic brain injuries.4
Pérez-Arredondo A, Cázares-Ramírez E, Carrillo-Mora P et al. Baclofen in the Therapeutic of Sequele of Traumatic Brain Injury: Spasticity. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2016 Nov; 39(6): 311–319
Williams G, Banky M, Olver J. Distribution of Lower Limb Spasticity Does Not Influence Mobility Outcome Following Traumatic Brain Injury: An Observational Study J Head Trauma Rehabil Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. E49 -E57.
Singer BJ, Jegasothy GM, Singer KP, Allison GT, Dunne JW. Incidence of ankle contracture after moderate to severe acquired brain injury.Arch Phys Med Rehab 2004 Sept;85(9):1465-9.
Bose, P, Hou J, and Thompson FJ. Brain Neurotrauma: Molecular, Neuropsychological, and Rehabilitation Aspects. Chapter 14 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)-Induced Spasticity Neurobiology, Treatment, and Rehabilitation (2015) Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. PMID: 26269896.