Make informed decisions about your care. Take your time to learn about the various weight loss strategies.
The three common types of weight-loss procedures use one or both of these techniques.
Keep in mind that any effective weight loss program should also include a combination of diet change, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy.
This procedure is a restrictive procedure that changes the shape and size of the stomach. The surgeon removes approximately two-thirds of the stomach; thus, the stomach is reshaped into a long tube, or “sleeve.” After the procedure, the stomach is about the size and shape of a banana and resembles a sleeve.
This procedure is both restrictive and malabsorptive. The surgeon converts the stomach to a small pouch that holds approximately 2 ounces of food. The gastric bypass procedure then routes food past most of the stomach and first part of the small intestine. In addition to restricting food intake, a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reduces nutrient absorption.
This surgery limits the amount of food that can be eaten, yet leaves the patient feeling full and satisfied on very little food. Having less food naturally results in reduced caloric intake, and weight loss usually follows. With Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, risks for nutritional deficiencies are higher than restrictive procedures (bypass causes food to skip the duodenum, where most iron and calcium are absorbed).
This procedure is restrictive. The surgeon places an adjustable band at the top of the stomach to create a small pouch. The band can be adjusted to increase or decrease the restricted area of the stomach through a port. The opening to the rest of the digestive tract is adjustable through an epidermal port.
Weight loss is slower than alternative weight loss procedures, but with appropriate aftercare and routine band adjustments, ultimately results in comparable long-term weight loss 3 or 4 years after surgery. Risks associated with adjustable gastric banding include band erosion or slippage, equipment malfunction, or infection.
The single anastomosis duodenal switch works by creating a sleeve gastrectomy where the stomach is reduced and narrowed like a tube for restriction and hunger control. In the second step, the intestines are rerouted similar to a gastric bypass to reduce the surface for food absorption. Specifically, the middle part of the small bowel is excluded from food transit. After this procedure, the food travels from the small new stomach to the distal intestine bypassing a long segment of the small bowel, which remains in the abdominal cavity, but is excluded from the food circulation. These anatomical changes decrease oral intake and reduce the absorption of the nutrients and calories eaten.1
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