1 STS Adult Cardiac Database. 2010 Harvest, Isolated AVR.
2 Bach DS, Cimino N, Deeb GM. Unoperated patients with severe aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. November 13, 2007;50(20):2018-2019.
3 Pellikka PA, Sarano ME, Nishimura RA, et al. Outcome of 622 adults with asymptomatic, hemodynamically significant aortic stenosis during prolonged follow-up. Circulation. June 21, 2005;111(24):3290-3295.
4 Charlson E, Legedza AT, Hamel MB. Decision-making and outcomes in severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. J Heart Valve Dis. May 2006;15(3):312-321.
5 Nkomo VT, Gardin JM, Skelton TN, Gottdiener JS, Scott CG, Enriquez-Sarano M. Burden of valvular heart diseases: a population-based study. Lancet. September 16, 2006;368(9540):1005-1011.
6 Lindroos M, Kupari M, Heikkilä J, Tilvis R. Prevalence of aortic valve abnormalities in the elderly: an echocardiographic study of a random population sample. J Am Coll Cardiol. April 1993;21(5):1220-1225.
7 Mack MJ, Brennan JM, Brindis R, et al. Outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve replacement in the United States. JAMA. November 20, 2013;310(19):2069-2077.
8 Medtronic data on file #1.
9 lung B, Baron G, Butchart EG, et al. A prospective survey of patients with valvular heart disease in Europe: The Euro Heart Survey on Valvular Heart Disease. Eur Heart J. July 2003;24(13):1231-1243.
10 Durko AP, Osnabrugge RL, Van Mieghem NM, Milojevic M, Mylotte D, Nkomo VT, Pieter Kappetein A. Annual number of candidates for transcatheter aortic valve implantation per country: current estimates and future projections. Eur Heart J. 2018 Jul 21;39(28):2635-2642. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehy107. PMID: 29546396.
11 Alec Vahanian, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Fabien Praz, Milan Milojevic, Stephan Baldus, Johann Bauersachs, Davide Capodanno, Lenard Conradi, Michele De Bonis, Ruggero De Paulis, Victoria Delgado, Nick Freemantle, Martine Gilard, Kristina H Haugaa, Anders Jeppsson, Peter Jüni, Luc Pierard, Bernard D Prendergast, J Rafael Sádaba, Christophe Tribouilloy, Wojtek Wojakowski, ESC/EACTS Scientific Document Group, 2021 ESC/EACTS Guidelines for the management of valvular heart disease: Developed by the Task Force for the management of valvular heart disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS), European Heart Journal, Volume 43, Issue 7, 14 February 2022, Pages 561–632
12 Modified from Lester SJ, Heilbron B, Gin K, Dodek A, Jue J. The natural history and rate of progression of aortic stenosis. Chest. April 1998;113(4):1109-1114.
13 Carabello BA, Paulus WJ. Aortic stenosis. Lancet. March 14, 2009;373(9667):956-966.
14 McCarthy CP, Phelan D, Griffin B. When does asymptomatic aortic stenosis warrant surgery? Assessment techniques. Cleve Clin J Med. April 2016;83(4):271-280.
15 Brennan JM. Under-treatment of Aortic Stenosis in the United States. Presented at TVT 2019; Chicago, IL.
16 Medtronic data on file #2.
17 Schwarz F, Baumann P, Manthey J, et al. The effect of aortic valve replacement on survival. Circulation. November 1982;66(5):1105-1110.
18 Active Living Awareness Initiative Survey. Survey included 3400 respondents. Available at: Heart-Valve-Surgery.com.
19 Otto CM, Nishimura RA, Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Erwin JP 3rd, Gentile F, Jneid H, Krieger EV, Mack M, McLeod C, O’Gara PT, Rigolin VH, Sundt TM 3rd, Thompson A, Toly C. 2020 ACC/AHA guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2021