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Über Adipositas

Auch Fettleibigkeit oder starkes Übergewicht genannt.

Definition

Adipositas, auch Fettleibigkeit genannt, ist eine chronische Erkrankung. Für Adipositas charakteristisch sind starkes Übergewicht, resultierend aus einer überdurchschnittlichen Vermehrung des Körperfetts. Gemäss der Weltgesundheitsorganisation ist eine Person mit einem Body-Mass-Index ab 30 kg/m2 adipös.


Ursachen

Die Ursachen von Adipositas sind vielfältig. Oft ist es eine Kombination verschiedener Faktoren wie zum Beispiel:

  • Genetische Veranlagung1
  • endokrine Ursachen2
  • Stress
  • falsche Ernährung
  • Bewegungsmangel3

Auswirkungen von Adipositas

Starkes Übergewicht hat für die Betroffenen schwerwiegende Folgen. Nebst körperlichen Beschwerden leiden adipöse Menschen oft auch psychisch. Die Stigmatisierung in der Gesellschaft führt häufig zu einem sozialen Rückzug. 

Adipositas erhöht das Risiko für folgende Erkrankungen4, 5-11

  • Krebs
  • Diabetes Typ 2
  • Herzerkrankungen
  • Bluthochdruck
  • Schlafapnoe
  • Asthma
  • orthopädische Erkrankungen
  • Zeugungs- und Fertilitätsprobleme
  • Gallensteine
  • Demenz
  • Psychosoziale Belastungen
Folgeerkrankungen von Adipositas


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Quellen

1

Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health, Andrew J. Walley, Alexandra I.F. Blakemore and Philippe Froguel, 2006

2

Obesity and endocrine disease, Kokkoris P, Pi-Sunyer FX. 2003  

3

World Health Organization http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ 

4

Schauer PR, Ikramuddin S, Gourash W, Ramanathan R, Luketich J. Outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Ann Surg 2000; 232:515–529. 2. Sugerman HJ, Felton WL 3rd, Sismanis A, Kellum JM, DeMaria EJ, Sugerman EL. Gastric surgery for pseudotumor cerebri associated with severe obesity. Ann Surg 1999; 229:634–640; discussion 640–642. 3. Mattar SG, Velcu LM, Rabinovitz M, et al. Surgically-induced weight loss significantly improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome. Ann Surg 2005; 242:610–617; discussion 618–620. 4. Schauer PR, Burguera B, Ikramuddin S, et al. Effect of laparoscopic Roux-en Y gastric bypass on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Surg 2003; 238:467–484; discussion 84–85. 5. Eid GM, Cottam DR, Velcu LM. Effective treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2005; 1:77–80. 6. Sugerman HJ, Sugerman EL, Wolfe L, Kellum JM, Schweitzer MA, DeMaria EJ. Risks and benefits of gastric bypass in morbidly obese patients with severe venous stasis disease. Ann Surg 2001; 234:41–46. 7. DeMaria EJ, Sugerman HJ, Kellum JM, Meador JG, Wolfe LG. Results of 281 consecutive total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses to treat morbid obesity. Ann Surg 2002; 235:640–645; discussion 645–647. 8. Christou NV, Sampalis JS, Liberman M, et al. Surgery decreases longterm mortality, morbidity, and health care use in morbidly obese patients. Ann Surg 2004; 240:416–423; discussion 423–424. 9. Wittgrove AC, Clark GW. Laparoscopic gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y- 500 patients: technique and results, with 3-60 month follow-up. Obes Surg 2000; 10:233–239. Guh DP, Zhang W, Bansback N, Amarsi Z, Birmingham CL, Anis AH. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:88. 51. International Agency for Research on Cancer, “Weight control and physical activity”. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention, H. Vainio and F. Bianchini, Eds. IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2002. 6: 1–315. 52. World Cancer Research Fund, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective, American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DC, USA, 2nd edition, 2007. 53. Reis JP, Loria CM, Lewis CE, Powell-Wiley TM, Wei GS, Carr JJ, Terry JG, Liu K. Association between duration of overall and abdominal obesity beginning in young adulthood and coronary artery calcification in middle age. JAMA. 2013;310(3):280-8. 54. King DS, Wofford MR. Obesity and hypertension. Drug Topics. 2000;3:59-66. 55. World Health Organization (2013) Global action plan for the prevention and control of NCDs 2013–2020. World Health Organization. Geneva 56. Based on internal test report #2151-002, Puncture resistance comparison of mean strengths between SurgiSleeve™ wound protector and Alexis™* wound prote

5

Guh DP, Zhang W, Bansback N, Amarsi Z, Birmingham CL, Anis AH. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:88.

6

International Agency for Research on Cancer, “Weight control and physical activity”. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention, H. Vainio and F. Bianchini, Eds. IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2002. 6: 1–315.

7

World Cancer Research Fund, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective, American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DC, USA, 2nd edition, 2007.

8

Reis JP, Loria CM, Lewis CE, Powell-Wiley TM, Wei GS, Carr JJ, Terry JG, Liu K. Association between duration of overall and abdominal obesity beginning in young adulthood and coronary artery calcification in middle age. JAMA. 2013;310(3):280-8.

9

King DS, Wofford MR. Obesity and hypertension. Drug Topics. 2000;3:59-66.

10

World Health Organization (2013) Global action plan for the prevention and control of NCDs 2013–2020. World Health Organization. Geneva

11

Based on internal test report #2151-002, Puncture resistance comparison of mean strengths between SurgiSleeve™ wound protector and Alexis™* wound protector as part of puncture resistance material evaluation. February 9, 2012.
Statistically significant results p = 0.004