A stroke happens when a blood vessel in the brain is suddenly blocked or bursts, resulting in damage to the brain tissue.
Every minute 2 million neurons can be destroyed permanently.1 This is why it is necessary to act fast, at the first signs of stroke.
For Acute Ischemic Stroke Cases, clots can be removed with the Mechanical Thrombectomy technique either in tandem with, or after IV t-PA.
IV t-PA is the clot busting drug traditionally used with stroke patients. Patients must be within the time window of 0-3 hours from symptom onset per IV t-PA indications for use. There are other contraindications associated with the use of the drug as well.
Mechanical thrombectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure using a tiny device called a stent retriever to remove the blood clot in the brain and restore blood flow.
For hemorrhagic stroke cases, the vessel rupture can be surgically managed or embolised with medical devices.
Recurrent ischemic strokes can be prevented with proper medication. In the case of ischemic stroke linked to detected atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulant therapy has been proven to reduce the risk of secondary stroke. In stroke cases where atrial fibrillation is suspected, timely diagnosis is important.
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A stroke, sometimes called a “brain attack”, can happen to anyone at any time. Globally, one in four people over the age of 25 will have a stroke in their lifetime2. It is a medical emergency.
There are two types of stroke:
A brain blood vessel ruptures. The blood can seep into brain tissue and damage brain cells.
A clot is blocking the blood flow in a brain blood vessel. The brain cells are deprived of oxygen and hence die.
Atrial fibrillation can sometimes be the underlying cause of an ischemic stroke. It is important to determine a stroke's cause in order to receive appropriate treatment.
Wilkins E, Wilson L, Wickramasinghe K et al. European Cardiovascular Disease Statistics 2017 edition. Eur Hear Network, Brussels. 2017:192. doi:978-2-9537898-1-2
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1. Saver, Jeffrey. (2006). Time Is Brain – Quantified. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 37.263-6. 10.1161/01.STR.0000196957.55928/ab.
2. World Stroke Organization – Global Stroke Fact Sheet 2019 – V.Feigin et al. Global Regional, and Country-Specific Lifetime Risks of Stroke, 1990 and 2016 NewEngl J Med 2018;379:2429-2437.
* V. Feigin et al. Global, regional, and national burden of stroke, 1990 to 2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease study 2016. The Lancet Neurology, 2019, forthcoming
** V. Feigin et al. Global, Regional, and Country-Specific Lifetime Risks of Stroke, 1990 and 2016. New Engl J Med 2018;379:2429-2437