Understanding is the key to finding answers.
Fainitng is a common problem. Approximately 1% of Emergency Department visits are for syncope and of these, 40% lead to hospitalisation.1 Half of patients admitted to the hospital leave without a diagnosis.2 People faint for many reasons but it can be a sign of an underlying heart condition.
Fainting, also called syncope, is a sudden loss of consciousness. It occurs when the blood pressure drops and not enough oxygen reaches the brain. There are times when fainting may look like a seizure.3
Fainting can be caused by many things. Many patients have a medical condition they may or may not know about that affects the nervous system or heart. You may also have a condition that affects blood flow through your body and causes your blood pressure to drop when you change positions (for example, going from lying down to standing).3
While some causes of unexplained fainting are harmless, others may be serious. Heart-related causes, including abnormal heart rhythms, are among the most serious causes of fainting. Also, if you do not have any warning signs before you faint, you may fall unexpectedly and be injured.
If your doctor suspects that your fainting is heart related, cardiac monitoring may be necessary.
Heart monitoring is used to either identify or rule out a heart rhythm disorder and to determine the right course of treatment. Types of heart monitoring vary in terms of how long they can be used and how information is captured. Common types of heart monitoring systems include:
These talking points will help you remember important information related to your fainting to share with your healthcare team.
The goal of treatment is to prevent another fainting episode. Sometimes, this can be accomplished with simple lifestyle changes. Other times, medication is needed.
If you continue to have fainting spells after making some lifestyle changes, your doctor may prescribe a medication. It is helpful to determine the cause of the fainting in order to recommend the most appropriate medicine for your condition.
If your healthcare team determines that your syncope is related to an abnormal heart rhythm, a medical device like a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may be implanted to control or reset the heart rhythm so it doesn’t beat too quickly or too slowly.
During catheter ablation, radiofrequency energy is directed through a catheter inserted in an artery toward abnormal electrical pathways in the heart tissue that are causing an arrhythmia. This scars the tissue, normalizes the erratic electrical signals and corrects the arrhythmia.
Brignole et al 2018 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope, European Heart Journal, Volume 39, Issue 21, 01 June 2018, Pages 1883–1948.
Data obtained from CDC National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) from the years 2008-2014.
Morag R, Brenner B. Syncope. Medscape. April 16, 2014. Accessed February 16, 2018.