Colorectal cancer Patient information

  

Etiology of Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer is more common in people above age 50, but it can occur in younger individuals.1

 Most cases begin in the form of benign asymptomatic polyps in the colon or rectum. The current standard of care is removing polyps via colonoscopy where possible for a complete analysis.2

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Risk factors3

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Aging

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Comorbidities: Obesity or Diabetes

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Genetic: History of colorectal cancer or Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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Lifestyle: Smoking, sedentary

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

Symptoms vary according to location and stages.3

  • Bleeding: Fresh blood from the rectum or bloody stool
  • Abdominal pain
  • Unexplained weight loss or decreased appetite
  • Change in bowel habits or the shape of stool (e.g., more narrow than usual)
If you notice any persistent symptoms , speak to your physician

Download questionnaire to take to your appointment

DIAGNOSIS & SCREENING

Colorectal cancer screening is recommended when a person is above 45 years, has risk factors but lacks symptoms.4

Routine screening, beginning at age 45, is the key to preventing colorectal cancer and finding it early.5

When a person has symptoms, diagnostic tests are used to find out the cause of the symptoms.

Speak to your physician about the below screening or diagnostic tests
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Stool-Based Tests

Tests that check for blood in stool
  • Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT)
  • Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT)
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Imaging

  • Colonoscopy: endoscopic examination of the large bowel  with a  camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
  • Double Contrast Barium Enema: x-rays of the colon and rectum are taken with a liquid containing barium which is put into the rectum to make the structures easier to see.
1

American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO). (2021, May 4). Colorectal Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/colorectal-cancer/risk-factors-and-prevention, accessed 18 February 2022

2

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (2021, June 11). Colon Cancer: Symptoms & causes. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/colon-cancer/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20353674, accessed 18 February 2022

3

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). (2021, June 11). Colon Cancer: Diagnosis & treatment. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/colon-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20353669, accessed 18 February 2022

4

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, February 8). What Should I Know About Screening? Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/cancer/colorectal/basic_info/screening/index.htm, accessed 18 February 2022

5

American Cancer Society, Inc. (2021, February 4). When Should You Start Getting Screened for Colorectal Cancer? Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/american-cancer-society-updates-colorectal-cancer-screening-guideline.html, accessed 18 February 2022