Surgical Ablation Solutions

temperature  Matters

Controlling temperature is key to achieving conduction block during your surgical ablation procedure.

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Physicians performing a case wearing masks

Why does temperature matter?

Surgical ablation procedures rely on specific temperatures to induce irreversible cell death. Delivery of too much radiofrequency ablation energy may overheat and char tissue, and temperatures that aren’t cold enough may not completely freeze tissue.

Controlled heat matters

The optimal transmural lesions are created in tissue temperatures of 50 °–100° C.1-5

Cardiac Tissue Temperature

  1. Overheating
    High temperature at the tissue site may result in coagulum formation, endocardial disruption, steam popping, or perforation.1
  2. Optimal Heating
    Critical temperature range for irreversible myocardial injury.2
  3. Insufficient Heating
    Irreversible loss of cellular excitability requires temperatures greater than 50° C.3
A chart showing temperature range for overheating, insufficient heating and optimal heating for iRF procedures

irrigation matters

Irrigation cools the surface of the targeted tissue and facilitates deep energy penetration.6-8 Cardioblate™ iRF is the only surgical ablation system that combines a smart-energy algorithm with irrigation to consistently create deep, wide lesions.

Cardioblate iRF clamp with saline dripping

Cardioblate iRF BP2
Surgical Ablation Clamp


Irrigation and controlled heat make the difference.

Cardioblate irrigated RF surgical ablation system has features that can prevent overheating, which helps create transmural lesions.

Our smart-energy algorithm with the Valleylab™ FT10 energy platform detects changes in the tissue and responds by increasing or decreasing power to maintain temperature in the effective heating range.

Valleylab FT10 generator with Cardioblate products plugged into the front of it

Valleylab FT10 Energy Platform

Colder Matters

Levels of Cell Death

Effective cryoablation requires exposure to lethal temperatures.

  1. Incomplete destruction and cell survival.
    Tissue temperatures of 0° C to -20° C are not completely lethal and cells may survive.9,10
  2. Lethal when held frozen or over repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    Tissue temperatures of -20° C to -40° C are lethal when held frozen10 for an extended period or repeated.9
  3. Temperature is sufficiently low to destroy tissue in a single cycle.
    Tissue temperatures below -40° C are lethal.9-12
A chart showing that tissue frozen to temperatures below -40 degrees C is destroyed by a direct damage in a single ablation


  • Tissue that is frozen to temperatures below -40° C is destroyed by direct damage in a single ablation.9-12
  • The CryoFlex™ system is the only cardiac surgical ablation system powered by argon gas.
  • During in vitro test freezes, the CryoFlex probe reached temperatures of approximately -150° C and achieved deeper lesions than nitrous oxide-powered cryoablation.13
CroyFlex probe on a white background

CryoFlex Surgical Ablation Probe

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Seo CH, Stephens D, Cannata J, et al. Monitoring radiofrequency catheter ablation using thermal strain imaging. Presented at IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium 2010; San Diego, CA.


Wood M, Goldberg S, Lau M, et al. Direct measurement of the lethal isotherm for radiofrequency ablation of myocardial tissue. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. June 2011;4(3):373-378.


Ihnát P, Ihnát Rudinská L, Zonča P. Radiofrequency energy in surgery: state of the art. Surg Today. June 2014;44(6):985-991.


Nath S, Lynch C 3rd, Whayne JG, Haines DE. Cellular electrophysiological effects of hyperthermia on isolated guinea pig papillary muscle. Implications for catheter ablation. Circulation. October 1993;88(4 Pt 1):1826-1831.


Haines D. Biophysics of ablation: application to technology. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. October 2004;15(10 Suppl):S2-S11.


Nakagawa H, Yamanashi WS, Pitha JV, et al. Comparison of in vivo tissue temperature profile and lesion geometry for radiofrequency ablation with a saline-irrigated electrode versus temperature control in a canine thigh muscle preparation. Circulation. April 15, 1995;91(8):2264-2273.


Mittleman RS, Huang SK, de Guzman WT, Cuénoud H, Wagshal AB, Pires LA. Use of the saline infusion electrode catheter for improved energy delivery and increased lesion size in radiofrequency catheter ablation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. May 1995;18(5 Pt 1):1022-1027.


Demazumder D, Mirotznik MS, Schwartzman D. Biophysics of radiofrequency ablation using an irrigated electrode. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. December 2001;5(4):377-389.


Baust JG, Gage AA. Progress toward optimization of cryosurgery. Technol Cancer Res Treat. April 2004;3(2):95-101.


Baust JG, Baust JM. Advances in Biopreservation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2007:90-93.


Gage AA, Baust J. Mechanisms of tissue injury in cryosurgery. Cryobiology. November 1998;37(3):171-186.


Gage AA, Baust J. Mechanisms of tissue injury in cryosurgery. Cryobiology. November 1998;37(3):171-186.


 Testing Supporting Argon versus N20 Tissue Ablation Depth: 10200289DOC Evaluation of Stock Atricure™* Cryo 2 Probe and Stock Medtronic CryoFlex 60SF3 (10S) Probe. Medtronic data on file.