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The revolutionary Titan nanoLOCK surface is created through a subtractive manufacturing process that removes material and enables textures at the macro, micro, and nano (MMN) levels.*
The nanoLOCK Surface Technology is specifically engineered to have nano textured features at a nanometer (10-9) level†, which have demonstrated the ability to elicit an endogenous cellular and biochemical response attributed to these nanotextured features in vitro. The nanoLOCK Surface Technology has demonstrated the elements to be considered a nanotechnology as outlined in the FDA nanotechnology guidance document.
Anti-expulsion texturing on superior and inferior surfaces.
The micro level (10-6m) features osteoclastic-sized pits on all external and interior surfaces.
The nano level (10-9m) has textures within the osteoclastic pits on all surfaces.
Representative of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of surface features at each scale.
In nature, osteoblasts form bone after osteoclastic pits have been created. Titan nanoLOCK Surface Technology uses biomimicry to create osteoclastic-like pits that mirror the topography and nano texture of natural pits, creating a surface based on the bone remodeling process.4
Osteoclastic pit in nature
Osteoclastic pit-like, nano-scaled texture of nanoLOCK 4
Image courtesy of Timothy R. Arnett, PhD, University College London (UCL) and Matteson et al.1
Titan nanoLOCK surface technology was developed with an iterative, “research first” approach. Olivares-Navarrete et al., (2014)2 measured and tested multiple surface characteristics for 36 surface variations. In the study, thorough examination of the nano-architecture of each tested surface was correlated with the cellular response. The increased up-regulation of specific bone growth factors led to the selection of surface nanoLOCK.
Olivares-Navarrete et al., (2014)2 assessed three specific bone-growth factors:
Significant differences were observed between individual pairs of groups at p<0.05. Yet, all three factor levels were highest on the nanoLOCK‡ surface, and it was the only surface statistically different from all other surface treatments, the rough control, and the TCPS control. Therefore, the surface represented as "#9" on the publication was selected to be the next generation nanoLOCK.
Rough= Roughened titanium alloy
TCPS= Tissue culture polystyrene
Figures adapted from a subset of the data in Olivares-Navarette et al.2 In vitro testing not necessarily indicative of human outcomes.
To date, there have been several peer-reviewed articles published about the nanoLOCK surface, including:
Titan nanoLOCK surface technology has received several recognitions and awards.
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Data on file.
Matteson JL, Greenspan DC, Tighe TB, et al. Assessing the hierarchical structure of titanium implant surfaces. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B Applied Biomaterials 104(6). May 2015. DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.33462.
Olivares-Navarrete, R. Hyzy, S.L., Berg, M.E. Schneider, J.M., Hotchkiss, K., Schwartz Z., Boyan, B. D. Osteoblast Lineage Cells Can Discriminate Microscale Topographic Features on Titanium–Aluminum–Vanadium Surfaces. Annuals of Biomedical Engineering. 2014 Dec; 42 (12): 2551-2561.
Olivares-Navarrete, R., Hyzy S.L., Gittens, R.A., Schneider, J.M., Haithcock, D., Ullrich, P., Schwartz, Z., Boyan, B.D. Rough titanium alloys regulate osteoblast production of angiogenic factors. Spine J. 2013 Nov; 13(11):1563-70.
Gittens, R.A., Olivares-Navarrete, R., Schwartz, Z., Boyan, B.D. Implant osseointegration and the role of microroughness and nanostructures: Lessons for spine implants. Acta Biomate 10, 3363-3371.
Olivares-Navarrete, R., Gittens, R.A., Schneider, J.M., Hyzy, S.L., Haithcock, D.A., Ullrich, P.F., Schwartz, Z., Boyan, B.D. (2012). Osteoblasts exhibit a more differentiated phenotype and increased bone morphogenetic production on titanium alloy substrates than poly-ether-ether-ketone. The Spine Journal, 12, 265-272.
Olivares-Navarrete, R., Hyzy S.L., Slosar, P.J., Schneider, J.M., Schwartz, Z., Boyan, B.D. Implant materials generate different peri-implant inflammatory factors: PEEK promotes fibrosis and micro-textured titanium promotes osteogenic factors. Spine. 2015 Mar; 40(6): 399-404.
Banik, B., Riley, T., Platt, C., Brown, J. Human mesenchymal stem cell morphology and migration on microtextured titanium. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2016 May; 4(41) doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2016.00041.