Avoiding OverSedation

26% of patients became deeply sedated when moderate sedation was intended.([FOOTNOTE=Saunders R, Erslon M, Vargo J. Modeling the costs and benefits of capnography monitoring during procedural sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy. Endosc Int Open. 2016;4(3):E340–E351.],[ANCHOR=],[LINK=])

Sedation is a continuum. During a procedure, a patient can slip into a deeper level of sedation than intended.([FOOTNOTE=Patel S, Vargo JJ, Khandwala F, et al. Deep sedation occurs frequently during elective endoscopy with meperidine and midazolam.Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:2689–2695.],[ANCHOR=],[LINK=])

Carefully monitoring patients is important to help ensure they do not become oversedated — and that complications are detected early.

More Comorbidities

3.5 years older mean age of patient in procedural sedation cases vs. OR.

In older patients who undergo procedures outside versus inside the OR.1

Age and comorbidities are key factors clinicians consider in providing sedation.2

Managing Different Responses to Sedation

30% decrease in drug elimination in elderly patients.([FOOTNOTE=Klotz U. Pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism in the elderly. Drug Metab Rev. 2009;41(2):67–76. doi: 10.1080/03602530902722679.],[ANCHOR=],[LINK=])

It is not always possible to predict a patient’s response.([FOOTNOTE=American Society of Anesthesiologists. Continuum of Depth of Sedation: Definition of General Anesthesia and Levels of Sedation/Analgesia. 2016. Accessed March 8, 2017.],[ANCHOR=View Abstract],[LINK=http://www.asahq.org/~/media/Sites/ASAHQ/Files/Public/Resources/standards-guidelines/continuum-of-depth-of-sedation-definition-of-general-anesthesia-and-levels-of-sedation-analgesia.pdf]) Age, metabolism, personal history, and even genetics may all play a role in a patient’s response to sedation. 5,([FOOTNOTE=Borrat X, Trocóniz IF, Valencia JF, et al. Modeling the influence of the A118G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene and of noxious stimulation on the synergistic relation between propofol and remifentanil: sedation and analgesia in endoscopic procedures. Anesthesiology. 2013 Jun;118(6):1395–1407.],[ANCHOR=],[LINK=])

How to Improve Sedation Outside the OR

Learn more about how patients are sedated in different care settings — like in interventional radiology and the emergency room. And see what clinicians are doing to manage pain, reduce risks, and improve outcomes. 

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