HIE and

Meet Chandi 40 weeks


Patient overview:
- Born at 40 weeks, full term baby
- 3300 grams at birth
- A category II fetal heart rate tracing during the birthing process with resuscitation required at delivery
- Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) diagnosis

The first 24 hours

A critical journey of hope begins

Complications during Chandi’s birth are first detected with a non-reassuring category II fetal heart rate tracing during birth. Upon delivery she does not begin breathing on her own and requires extensive resuscitation. Eventually, her breathing does recover and she initiates her own first breaths. However, Chandi remains unresponsive, floppy, and with marked respiratory distress. Her cord blood gas reading is pH 6.9 and base deficit 18.

These symptoms are indicative of neonatal encephalopathy. Chandi is moved to the NICU and evaluated for a range of causes of brain injury including hypoxic-ischemic, infection, and metabolic disorders. After evaluation, her doctors determine that hypoxic ischemia is the most likely cause of her symptoms and she starts brain cooling treatment, as well as continued respiratory and seizure monitoring.


24 hours & after

Medical marathons and milestone moments

During cooling, two forms of monitoring are used to monitor breathing quality and watch for potential ischemic threats. Capnography is used for early identification of overventilation, as low CO2 levels cause a rapid decrease in blood flow to the brain, potentially compounding existing brain injury with further ischemia. This enables more precise ventilator management and alerts the neonatologist that Chandi needs an urgent change in her respiratory support. 

A second layer of monitoring provided by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) enables tissue-specific monitoring of cerebral and renal perfusion, allowing early identification of hypoxia and a window for intervention and also provides an additional set of data to help determine the severity of brain injury. After the third day of cooling and limited interaction to prevent further brain injury, Chandi is warmed. As she re-warms, she becomes more agitated and experiences seizures, both of which increase the risk of extubation, so her nurse begins monitoring tube movement with the SonarMed™ airway monitoring system

After her brain MRI, which confirms the presence of brain injury consistent with the diagnosis of HIE, the neonatologist combines all the previous NIRS data with the new MRI data to assess severity of HIE and communicate an ongoing plan of support with the family to ensure the best quality of life for them and Chandi. Before she can go home, a tracheostomy tube is placed to manage persistent airway protection and secretion management difficulties that increase the risk for pneumonia.

NICU solutions

Products that support patients and provide critical information to the clinical team

Ventilation monitoring

Therapeutic hypothermia is a treatment that, in some cases, can prevent or minimize permanent brain damage caused by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). But timing is critical, and therapy must be given within hours of the baby's birth.

Chandi is showing signs of HIE post-resuscitation after delivery. She is immediately moved to the NICU for cooling. To ensure proper oxygen and respiratory management at low body temperatures1, her NICU care team continuously monitors her ventilation status with Capnostream™ 35 portable respiratory monitor and a Microstream™ advance filter line — which provide continuous capnography for intubated and nonintubated patients. 


Microstream™ advance filter line

Microstream™ has the flexibility to be used for long-term and short-term, intubated and non-intubated patients. With special design considerations for neonates, its lightweight (3.8g) design reduces additional weight on the endotracheal tube (ETT). The ability to use Microstream™ sampling lines in one area of care and transfer to another area, allows for continuous capnography monitoring from labor and delivery to the NICU.

  • Low sample rate (50 ml/min) minimizes competition for tidal volume
  • Engineered for accurate respiration rate (RR) up to 150 breaths per minute
  • Using sidestream capnography, such as Microstream™ capnography monitoring system, to guide ventilator management, allows clinicians to limit routine arterial blood gas draws.2 A study of 66 neonatal patients receiving mechanical ventilation found that the correlation between Microstream™ capnography monitoring system etCO2 and PaCO2 was 0.836 (95% CI, 0.78–0.88).2

Microstream™ sampling line

Capnostream™ 35 portable respiratory monitor

Reliable access to respiratory status is vital to providing comprehensive care. The Capnostream™ 35 portable respiratory monitor delivers real-time, continuous monitoring of your patient’s respiratory status by measuring etCO2, SpO2, respiration rate, and pulse rate. All so you can respond earlier and intervene sooner if your patient is showing signs of respiratory compromise.

Capnostream™ 35 portable respiratory monitor

The Microstream™ capnography monitoring system should not be used as the sole basis for diagnosis or therapy and in intended only as an adjunct in patient assessment.

Monitoring cerebral perfusion

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a type of newborn brain damage caused by oxygen deprivation and limited blood flow. 

Chandi’s cerebral oxygen saturation is monitored with the non-invasive INVOS™ regional oximetry system. A higher-than-expected or fast increase in cerebral rSO2 after a hypoxic-ischemic event can indicate the severity of the brain injury — a lower than expected cerebral rSO2 can also suggest over extraction of oxygen, inadequate cardiovascular support and risk for further ischemia. Because outcomes after a brain injury are difficult to predict, the unknown can become a major source of stress for families affected by HIE. It helps the care team properly communicate with the family if they have as much data as possible to inform those difficult discussions. 


INVOS™ 7100 regional oximetry system

The INVOS™ 7100 regional oximetry system is designed to help quickly identify desaturation events and improve the clinician’s ability to intervene sooner. Because seconds matter.

  • Clinically validated design and our proprietary algorithm allow INVOS technology to measure acute alterations in hemodynamics, regional oxygen saturation (rSO2), and oxygen metabolism — markers that can help identify physiological changes more quickly than other indicators.
  • Patient can be assessed for adequate delivery and consumption of oxygen at the organ-specific, regional tissue bed.

INVOS™ 7100 regional oximetry system

INVOS™ infant regional saturation sensors

A soft, small sensor designed for fragile neonatal skin for use anywhere on the body. INVOS infant regional saturation sensors are applied to the skin’s surface, and are user and patient friendly, making monitoring of ischemic threats to the brain and body possible. By reporting venous weighted regional hemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2) in tissue directly beneath the sensor, the INVOS technology reflects oxygen remaining after tissue demand has been met.

INVOS™ sensors

The INVOS™ 7100 regional oximetry system should not be used as the sole basis for diagnosis or therapy and is intended only as an adjunct in patient assessment.

Respiratory care

If an infant with HIE cannot breathe completely on their own, mechanical ventilation may be required.

Chandi’s breathing is unstable after birth and she is supported with mechanical ventilation using the Puritan Bennett™ 980 ventilator. The Puritan Bennett™ 980 ventilator’s NeoMode 2.0 software is designed to ensure accurate and safe neonate breath delivery.


Puritan Bennett™ 980 ventilator

A multipurpose ventilator for noninvasive and invasive ventilation to help clinicians manage neonatal respiratory care:

  • Uses a lung protective ventilation strategy that controls tidal volume, synchrony, and leak management3 to help prevent atelectasis, diaphragmatic dysfunction, and lung injury4
  • Provides accurate monitoring and delivery of the volume with or without the use of a proximal flow sensor5

Puritan Bennett™ 980 ventilator

NeoMode 2.0 software for the Puritan Bennett™ 980 ventilator

Helps clinicians provide ventilatory support to neonates weighing as little as 300 grams by delivering tidal volumes as small as 2 mL. The NeoMode 2.0 software was developed specifically for neonates to address and improve some of the issues critical to their care and safety, such as accurate breath delivery, responsive triggering, lower elevated oxygen preset for procedures, effective alarm management, and automatic leak compensation.

NeoMode 2.0 software

Please refer to the instructions for use for the indications, contraindications, warnings, risks, and precautions associated with the Puritan Bennett™ 980 ventilator and software referenced in these materials.

Airway management

For neonates requiring long-term mechanical ventilation, it is important to use products designed for their anatomy to mitigate risks of unplanned extubation (UEs) and airway trauma.

Chandi’s respiratory therapist uses a Shiley™ cuffless endotracheal tube and the SonarMed™ airway monitoring system, which provides real-time visualization of the endotracheal tube (ETT) position and patency for accurate, informed troubleshooting. Chandi is eventually trached for long-term secretion management using a Shiley™ neonatal tracheostomy tubes.


SonarMed™ airway monitoring system

Timely notifications and specific measurements allow for a coordinated response to address potentially critical events, such as tube movement or occlusion. The use of SonarMed™ technology may lower unplanned extubations when combined with other quality measures.6,7 

  • Assists in detecting ETT tip movement and direction both upward and downward, notifying clinicians of potential ETT migration in real time
  • Displays the percentage and location of any obstruction within the ETT and can indicate if removal efforts were successful
  • Measures the circumference of the patient’s trachea at the tip of the ETT to observe any migration toward a smaller or larger passageway
  • Easy-to-read screen displays any status changes of the ETT, and monitors the correction of the tube to the optimal baseline position
  • Helps notify the clinician of ETT movement to help facilitate skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care), which, according to a study, is the ultimate healing environment for newborn infants8

SonarMed™ airway monitoring system

Shiley™ cuffless endotracheal tube

We offer a range of DEHP free neonatal and pediatric cuffless endotracheal tubes made with plastic that does not contain phthalates.

  • Features distal tip reference marks and depth marks every centimeter to assist placement.
  • Thin but strong tube wall, provides large inner diameter for proper ventilation.

Shiley™ endotracheal tubes

Shiley™ neonatal and pediatric tracheostomy tubes

Shiley™ neonatal and pediatric tracheostomy solutions incorporate a wide range of simple and smart design advances for the distinct anatomy of neonate and pediatric airways.

  • Transparent soft flange supports patient comfort and visualization of the skin below.
  • Reduces fluid leakage by an average of >94.8 % at similar or lower intracuff pressure.9
  • Significantly improves management of airway leak at pressures below 25 cm H2O.10
  • Reduces removal force by 58.3 % compared to the previous barrel-shaped cuff — reducing the potential for stoma irritation or damage during removal.11

Shiley™ tracheostomy tubes

The SonarMed™ airway monitoring system should not be used as the sole basis for diagnosis or therapy and is intended only as an adjunct in patient assessment.

Wires, monitors, smells, sights and sounds in the NICU can be trauma-inducing for families. For them, having confidence in their child’s quality of care and the people and products providing that care — keeping their child alive, delivering therapeutics, and hopefully getting them to a healthy place — is paramount.

In the face of all these stressors, families share that the NICU is also a place where trusting relationships form, trauma decreases, and connections to resources create a halo of support around them.“

– Betsy Pilon, Executive Director at Hope for HIE


Awaiting a transplant

Support & partnerships

A supportive family for those first months of life

The NICU team is more than just a group of highly trained and specialized medical professionals. It’s a genuine smile at the sight of a milestone achieved. It’s an emotional and sometimes heartbreaking end to a shift. It’s a supportive shoulder and life coach to a concerned parent struggling with their new reality. It is a family. At Medtronic we strive to be more than just a medical technology company; we aim to be a supportive member of that family.

Clinical support

We offer online medical education and product training from our highly experienced clinical field representatives.

eLearning courses are available for many of our NICU products.

eLearning courses

Hospital support

Medtronic offers an innovative and broad portfolio to support the NICU. Quality and sustainability are of utmost importance. We design our sensors, cables, monitors, ventilators, and dialysis products for seamless compatibility, durability, and ease of use — so you can put your focus on your patients not the devices.

We offer comprehensive, professional reimbursement services to secure and maintain coverage and payment.

Learn more

Our partners

Our partnerships with societies and nonprofits that serve the NICU help drive research, community connection, and solutions to the specific challenges that are faced on a regular basis.

Our partners include:

National Association of Neonatal Nurses


Neonatal Heart Society

American Nurses Association

Hope for HIE

American Association for Respiratory Care

  These narratives feature fictional patients, based on real clinical scenarios and product use. At all times, it is the professional responsibility of the practitioner to exercise independent clinical judgment in a particular situation. Changes in a patient’s disease and/or medications may alter the efficacy of the therapy, or product features. Results may vary. 


Afzal B, Chandrasekharan P, Tancredi D. Monitoring gas exchange during hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2019; 20(2): 166-171. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000001799. 


Mehta H, Kashyap R, Trivedi S. Correlation of end tidal and arterial carbon dioxide levels in critically ill neonates and children. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2014;18(6):348-353. doi:10.4103/0972-5229.133874.


Keszler M. Mechanical ventilation strategies. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. 2017;22(4):267-274.


Dargaville PA, Tingay DG. Lung protective ventilation in extremely preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health. 2012:48(9): 740-746.


Puritan Bennett™ 980 ventilator operations manual.


Roddy DJ, Spaeder MC, Pastor W, Stockwell DC, Klugman D. UEs in children: Impact on hospital cost and length of stay. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015;16(6):572-575.


Galiote JP, Ridoré M, Carman J, et al. Reduction in unintended extubations in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics. May 2019;143(5):e20180897.


Alitimier L, Phillips R. The neonatal integrative developmental care model: advanced clinical applications of the seven core measures for neuroprotective family-centered developmental care. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews. 2016:16:230–244.


Internal bench testing. Comparative fluid seal test performed using the Shiley™ 4.0PCF and 6.5PLCF pediatric tracheostomy tubes with taper-shaped cuff versus predicate Shiley™ 4.0PDC and 6.5PLC pediatric tracheostomy tubes with barrel-shaped cuff. 


Internal bench testing. Comparative ventilator air leak test performed using the Shiley™ 4.0PCF and 6.5PLCF pediatric tracheostomy tubes with taper-shaped cuff versus predicate Shiley™ 4.0 PDC and 6.5PLC pediatric tracheostomy tubes with barrel-shaped cuff. 


Internal bench testing. Comparative removal force test performed using the Shiley™ 4.0PCF and 6.5PLCF Pediatric Tracheostomy Tubes with taper-shaped cuff versus the predicate Shiley™ 4.0PDC and 6.5PLC pediatric tracheostomy tubes with barrel-shaped cuff.