CRT Defibrillators and CRT Pacemakers
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices
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Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices
Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) ICDs are indicated for ventricular antitachycardia pacing and ventricular defibrillation for automated treatment of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and for providing cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure patients who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy if indicated, and meet any of the following classifications: New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class III or IV and who have a left ventricular ejection fraction < 35% and a prolonged QRS duration. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) with a QRS duration > 130 ms, left ventricular ejection fraction < 30%, and NYHA Functional Class II. NYHA Functional Class I, II, or III and who have left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 50% and atrioventricular block (AV block) that are expected to require a high percentage of ventricular pacing that cannot be managed with algorithms to minimize right ventricular pacing. Optimization of heart failure medical therapy that is limited due to AV block or the urgent need for pacing should be done post implant. Some CRT ICDs are also indicated for use in patients with atrial tachyarrhythmias, or those patients who are at significant risk for developing atrial tachyarrhythmias. The RV Lead Integrity Alert feature is intended primarily for patients who have a Medtronic ICD or CRT-D device and a Sprint Fidelis lead (Models 6949, 6948, 6931, and 6930, based on performance data. The RV LIA feature may not perform as well with a St. Jude Riata/Durata lead or a Boston Scientific Endotak lead as it does when used with a Medtronic Sprint Fidelis lead. This is because different lead designs may have different failure signatures and conditions that may or may not be detected early by the RV LIA feature.
CRT IPGs are indicated for NYHA Functional Class III and IV patients who remain symptomatic despite stable, optimal heart failure medical therapy and have a LVEF ≤ 35% and a prolonged QRS duration and for NYHA Functional Class I, II, or III patients who have a LVEF ≤ 50%, are on stable, optimal heart failure medical therapy if indicated and have atrioventricular block (AV block) that are expected to require a high percentage of ventricular pacing that cannot be managed with algorithms to minimize right ventricular pacing. Optimization of heart failure medical therapy that is limited due to AV block or the urgent need for pacing should be done post implant. Rate adaptive pacing is provided for those patients developing a bradycardia indication who might benefit from increased pacing rates concurrent with increases in activity. Dual chamber and atrial tracking modes are indicated for patients who may benefit from maintenance of AV synchrony. Antitachycardia pacing (ATP) is indicated for termination of atrial tachyarrythmias in patients with one or more of the above pacing indications.
CRT ICDs are contraindicated in patients experiencing tachyarrhythmias with transient or reversible causes including, but not limited to, the following: acute myocardial infarction, drug intoxication, drowning, electric shock, electrolyte imbalance, hypoxia, or sepsis; patients who have a unipolar pacemaker implanted, patients with incessant ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF), and patients whose primary disorder is chronic atrial tachyarrhythmia with no concomitant VT or VF. CRT IPGs are contraindicated for concomitant implant with another bradycardia device and concomitant implant with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. There are no known contraindications for the use of pacing as a therapeutic modality to control heart rate. The patient’s age and medical condition, however, may dictate the particular pacing system, mode of operation, and implant procedure used by the physician. Rate-responsive modes may be contraindicated in those patients who cannot tolerate pacing rates above the programmed Lower Rate. Dual chamber sequential pacing is contraindicated in patients with chronic or persistent supraventricular tachycardias, including atrial fibrillation or flutter. Asynchronous pacing is contraindicated in the presence (or likelihood) of competition between paced and intrinsic rhythms. Single chamber atrial pacing is contraindicated in patients with an AV conduction disturbance. Anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) therapy is contraindicated in patients with an accessory antegrade pathway.
Changes in a patient’s disease and/or medications may alter the efficacy of the device’s programmed parameters. Patients should avoid sources of magnetic and electromagnetic radiation to avoid possible under-detection, inappropriate sensing and/or therapy delivery, tissue damage, induction of an arrhythmia, device electrical reset or device damage. Do not place transthoracic defibrillation paddles directly over the device.
Additionally, for CRT ICDs and CRT IPGs, certain programming and device operations may not provide cardiac resynchronization. Also for CRT IPGs, Elective Replacement Indicator (ERI) results in the device switching to VVI pacing at 65 ppm. In this mode, patients may experience loss of cardiac resynchronization therapy and / or loss of AV synchrony. For this reason, the device should be replaced prior to ERI being set. Use of the device should not change the application of established anticoagulation protocols.
Potential complications include, but are not limited to, rejection phenomena, erosion through the skin, muscle or nerve stimulation, oversensing, failure to detect and/or terminate arrhythmia episodes, and surgical complications such as hematoma, infection, inflammation, and thrombosis. An additional complication for CRT ICDs is the acceleration of ventricular tachycardia.
See the device manual for detailed information regarding the implant procedure, indications, contraindications, warnings, precautions, and potential complications/adverse events. For further information, please consult Medtronic’s website at www.medtronic.com.
Caution: Swedish law restricts these devices to sale by or on the order of a physician.