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Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Clinical Guidelines and Indications

Clinical guidelines and indications include ACC and AHA Guidelines for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy for sudden cardiac arrest due to ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation (VT and VF).

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2008 ACC/AHA/HRS Guidelines for Implantable Defibrillator and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for Cardiac Rhythm Abnormalities1 (PDF, 565 KB)

Despite ICDs and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices (CRT-Ds) being a Class I or IIa indication for treatment of patients, research confirms underutilization and variation of care in heart failure patients.2,3



Epstein AE, DiMarco JP, Ellenbogen KA, et al. ACC/AHA/HRS 2008 guidelines for device-based therapy of cardiac rhythm abnormalities. J Am Coll Cardiol. May 27, 2008;51(21):e1-62.


Fonarow GC, Yancy CW, Albert NM, et al. Heart failure care in the outpatient cardiology practice setting: findings from IMPROVE HF. Circulation: Heart Failure. 2008;1:98-106.


Piccini JP, Hernandez AF, Dai D, et al. Use of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients hospitalized with heart failure. Circulation. 2008;118:926-933.

Class I Recommendations

Class II Recommendations