Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer arises in the cervix of the uterus. 78% of all patients diagnosed with early-stage cervical cancer are below 40 years of age.1

The most important risk factor for developing cervical cancer is a persistent infection with HPV (Human Papillomavirus). Active cervical cancer screening (Pap smear test and HPV testing) and HPV vaccination is recommended for women and has helped to prevent cervical cancer significantly.2

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer amongst women worldwide.​3
The landscape for cervical cancer is changing dramatically because of vaccine-driven prevention.4
Cervical cancer is highly preventable and can be easily treated if detected at early stages.4

What are the symptoms of Cervical Cancer?


Risk factors for cervical cancer include:​4

  • Many sexual partners​
  • Early sexual activity​
  • Other sexually transmitted infections (STIs)​
  • A weakened immune system​
  • Smoking


Symptoms include:4

  • Abnormal vaginal blood loss​
  • Increased vaginal discharge​
  • Pain in the pelvic area​
  • Pain or bleeding during sex​
  • It may not cause symptoms in early stages; therefore, screening is crucial.​

What happens next?

If you are suffering from the above mentioned symptoms, you should see a doctor who will consult you regarding surgery.​

The extent of surgery will depend on the patient’s age, the presence of other medical conditions, how big the tumour is, and whether it has spread. As part of surgical management, the patient's wishes regarding fertility will be considered. ​

How is Cervical Cancer treated?

Depending on the size of the tumour and how far it has spread, primary treatment of cervical cancer consists of surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.5 Treatment in pregnancy may be delayed until the baby can be delivered or a therapeutic abortion may be necessary.​6,7


Pelvic organs and lymph nodes will be excised during surgery. The stage of the cancer will determine how invasive the surgery will be.5


An external beam of radiation is generally used to kill cancer cells.4


Treating cancer by using chemical substances including anti-cancer drugs.4


Cervical cancer is often treatable.4 After the cancer has been removed, you will need to attend appointments with your doctors to ensure that your treatment is complete.​

Check out the different pathologies

Uterine Fibroids

Learn More

Uterine Polyps

Learn More

Uterine Cancer

Learn More

Don't neglect your own well being

If you're experiencing any of these symptoms make time to consult your doctor or healthcare professional.

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Learn More
Chronic Pelvic Pain

Learn More
Menopausal Symptoms

Learn More

Learn More


1. Benard, V. B., Watson, M., Castle, P. E., & Saraiya, M. (2012). Cervical Carcinoma Rates Among Young Females in the United States. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 120(5), 1117–1123. https://doi.org/10.1097/aog.0b013e31826e4609

2. Hu Z, Ma D. The precision prevention and therapy of HPV-related cervical cancer: new concepts and clinical implications. Cancer Med. 2018 Oct;7(10):5217-5236. doi: 10.1002/cam4.1501. Epub 2018 Sep 14. PMID: 30589505; PMCID: PMC6198240.

3. Buskwofie A, David-West G, Clare CA. A Review of Cervical Cancer: Incidence and Disparities. J Natl Med Assoc. 2020 Apr;112(2):229-232. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2020.03.002. Epub 2020 Apr 8. PMID: 32278478.

4. Johnson CA, James D, Marzan A, Armaos M. Cervical Cancer: An Overview of Pathophysiology and Management. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2019 Apr;35(2):166-174. doi: 10.1016/j.soncn.2019.02.003. Epub 2019 Mar 14. PMID: 30878194.

5. HILL, E. K. (2020). Updates in Cervical Cancer Treatment. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 63(1), 3–11.

6. Nocarová, L., & Ondruš, D. (2020). Cervical cancer in pregnancy. Klinicka Onkologie, 33(4), 268–273. https://doi.org/10.14735/amko2020268

7. La Russa M, Jeyarajah AR. Invasive cervical cancer in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 May;33:44-57. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2015.10.002. Epub 2015 Oct 23. PMID: 26586539.