Risk factors for cervical cancer include:4
If you are suffering from the above mentioned symptoms, you should see a doctor who will consult you regarding surgery.
The extent of surgery will depend on the patient’s age, the presence of other medical conditions, how big the tumour is, and whether it has spread. As part of surgical management, the patient's wishes regarding fertility will be considered.
Depending on the size of the tumour and how far it has spread, primary treatment of cervical cancer consists of surgery, radiotherapy or a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.5 Treatment in pregnancy may be delayed until the baby can be delivered or a therapeutic abortion may be necessary.6,7
Pelvic organs and lymph nodes will be excised during surgery. The stage of the cancer will determine how invasive the surgery will be.5
An external beam of radiation is generally used to kill cancer cells.4
Treating cancer by using chemical substances including anti-cancer drugs.4
Cervical cancer is often treatable.4 After the cancer has been removed, you will need to attend appointments with your doctors to ensure that your treatment is complete.
1. Benard, V. B., Watson, M., Castle, P. E., & Saraiya, M. (2012). Cervical Carcinoma Rates Among Young Females in the United States. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 120(5), 1117–1123. https://doi.org/10.1097/aog.0b013e31826e4609
2. Hu Z, Ma D. The precision prevention and therapy of HPV-related cervical cancer: new concepts and clinical implications. Cancer Med. 2018 Oct;7(10):5217-5236. doi: 10.1002/cam4.1501. Epub 2018 Sep 14. PMID: 30589505; PMCID: PMC6198240.
3. Buskwofie A, David-West G, Clare CA. A Review of Cervical Cancer: Incidence and Disparities. J Natl Med Assoc. 2020 Apr;112(2):229-232. doi: 10.1016/j.jnma.2020.03.002. Epub 2020 Apr 8. PMID: 32278478.
4. Johnson CA, James D, Marzan A, Armaos M. Cervical Cancer: An Overview of Pathophysiology and Management. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2019 Apr;35(2):166-174. doi: 10.1016/j.soncn.2019.02.003. Epub 2019 Mar 14. PMID: 30878194.
5. HILL, E. K. (2020). Updates in Cervical Cancer Treatment. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 63(1), 3–11.
6. Nocarová, L., & Ondruš, D. (2020). Cervical cancer in pregnancy. Klinicka Onkologie, 33(4), 268–273. https://doi.org/10.14735/amko2020268
7. La Russa M, Jeyarajah AR. Invasive cervical cancer in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2016 May;33:44-57. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2015.10.002. Epub 2015 Oct 23. PMID: 26586539.